Lesson 8

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Lesson 8 - the Imperative


In some languages, the imperative is simply the verb, in others, it's a subjunctive form of the verb.  In Ceqli, it has these possible forms:


Go ciq ke zi stu.  I invite that you sit.  Please sit.

Ciq stu.   Invite sit.  This Mandarin-sounding phrase is just an abbreviated form of the first example.

Stu.  Sit.  Abbreviated ultimately.


There are other verbs you can form the imperative with, depending on the attitude or degree of the "imperativeness"


Go pri ke zi stu.  I beg (request) that you sit.

Go jaw ke zi stu.  I order that you sit.

Go sper ke zi stu.  I hope that you sit.

Go driq ke zi stu.  I insist that you sit.


They can be abbreviated the same way, of course, Pri stu, etc.


Another possibility is:


Zi dwa stu.  You must sit.  (as in, say, before I can cut your hair, you must sit.)  and that can abbreviate to:

Dwa stu.


Other verbs might work also, but these are the basic ones.


Ciq is simple formal politeness.

Pri is a more servile request

Jaw is an order, of course.  It comes from Hindi "jao," an imperative form of "to go" which is often used to form an imperative with other verbs.  It's an order you have authority to give.

Sper is sort of a request that you're not sure will be responded to, and you're certainly not going to insist on.

Dwa is just a statement of necessity.

Driq is a stubborn request, and insistence. You don't have the authority, but you have a moral certainty that you should be obeyed.  From Dutch "aandringen."


Ciq kom pom.  I invite you to eat an apple.

Fala.  Bu.   Thank you. no.

Go driq!  I insist!  You really must!


Go on to Lesson 9

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