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Lesson 3

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Saved by Rex May
on April 12, 2014 at 7:14:08 pm



Names are a particular category of word in Ceqli. A name usually behaves

like a pronoun, in that it stands for something in particular, not a category

of things. The name jant means "John," and you can tell it's a name

because all names end with a t. Etymologically, jant is thought of as

deriving from Ceqli jan, meaning "know." You can derive a name from any

Ceqli word by adding -t, or -et if the word ends with q or m.


tem > temet

kiq > kiqet


In such cases, the stress of the name remains the way it was before the ending was added:


sali > salit - SAlit

cawal > cawalt - caWALT

kaliq > kaliqet - kaLI-qet


And since names end with the cwazim t, the name must always be followed by a pause or glottal stop,

to prevent confusion, and to preserve self-segregating morphology.


Jant xaw.

Could be heard as Jan txaw without that pause/glottal stop


jant jan japant. John knows Japanese.


You see that japant is also a name. Often, any 'proper name' is

capitalized in English, and that's a hint that the Ceqli equivalent will

also be a name.


Ethnic/linguistic/national names are a special problem. You can usually

tell from context whether you're talking about Japan, a Japanese person,

or the Japanese language.


go japant. I am Japanese.

go bebol japant. I speak Japanese.

go ja japant. I go to Japan.


However, in case of possible confusion, the name can combine with:


haym country, jin person, and bol language, etc. this way:


haym sa japant - is-a-country japan

jin sa japant - is-a-person japan

bol sa japant - is-a-language japan


Which can be shortened to:


haym japant, etc.


Given that the name ending -t is always followed by a pause/glottal stop, the sa isn't

necessary to prevent a compound from forming. But when in doubt, use sa.


haym japant bel. Japan is beautiful.

bol japant bel. Japanese (language) is beautiful.

jin japant bel. Japanese people are beautiful.

kyoyo japant bel. Japanese culture is beautiful.

ceq japant bel. Japan city (if there was such a place) is beautiful


These forms are almost always clear, but in the case of more than one entity with the same name, the prefixed article can make the necessary distinction:


Go dwel to ceq spriqfilt. I live in (the) Springfield.

Go dwel ta ceq spriqfilt. I live in a city named Springfield. or I live in a Springfield.




Jant sta dor. John is at the door.

Ta jant sta dor. A John (one of the people named John) is at the door.




Ceqli connectives are based on the Loglan connectives. They are:


kay - and (from Esperanto)  

kaw - and/or (from Esperanto)

fio - if and only if (English "if only" reworked)

dali - whether or not (Bulgarian)


da corn kay hyun. He is black and is a dog.

da corn kaw hyun. He is black or is a dog, and possibly both.

da corn fio hyun He is black if and only if is a dog.

da corn dali hyun. He is black whether he is a dog or not.


These are all based on the principles of symbolic logic.


To say "if" a compound connective is used:


bukaw - if


da corn bukaw hyun. If he is black, he is a dog.


The logic of this is hard to penetrate, but it actually makes sense. The bu applies to the first clause, so what we're saying is that


He is not-black or he's a dog, and possibly both.


Let's say he's not-black. Then, according to that sentence, it's possible that he's a dog, and also that he's not a dog. So far, so good.


Let's say he's black. Then, still according to that sentence, it's certainly possible that he's a dog, but is it possible for him not to be a dog?


Well, the first clause is untrue. He is black, not not-black. So what about the second clause? It can't be untrue, because of the truth values of and/or.


X and/or Y. Look at it. Both can be true, or one true and the other false. They can't both be false. So if the first clause, "He is not-black" is untrue (which it is — he's black), then the second clause has to be true, so he is a dog.


Suppose you want to say the "opposite"....


He is black if he's a dog.


Very simple. You switch buja around to kawbu, making the bu refer to the second clause, and you have the same sort of phenomenon with the truth tablekaw


da corn kawbu hyun. He is a dog if he's black.


Here's a table that might be helpful:


X kay Z sta ci. X and Y are here

X kaw Z sta ci Either X or Y (and maybe both) are here.

X fio Z sta ci. X, if and only if Y, is here. X is here if and only if Y is here.

X dali Z sta ci. X, whether or not Y, is here.

X bukaw Z sta ci. X is here only if Z (is here).

X kawbu Z sta ci. X is here if Z (is here).


Now, these connectives can be used in much the same way as their English equivalents. However, Ceqli can be made more precise when necessary.


pikay means 'and', of course, but it's a special way of connecting only single words.  It's a short-scope connective:


to hyun kom pikay dorm. The dog eats and sleeps.


It connects kom and dorm. Seldom necessary, and certainly not in this case, but it makes it clear that it's not connecting to hyun kom and dorm.


Likewise, the word ga means that a connective is wide-scope.  Hence, gakay is a way to unambiguously connect whole sentences.


to hyun kom gakay to felin dorm.


Again, to hyun kom kay to felin dorm. is usually not going to be taken ambiguously, though it could be by a computer. Hence, such pi and ga compounded connectives can come in handy for eliminating all possible ambiguity when talking to computers or lawyers.


And here are more examples of usage:



ta hyun kom ta karn gakay ta kayn kom ta tsaw.

Dogs eat meat and cattle eat grass.


to fawl gi ziq gakaw go drim.


The bird is singing or I'm dreaming (or both).




go fu ven gafio zi tayarfa to swarkomi

I will come if (and only if) you make dinner.


jant tal gadali go tiq da.

John talks whether I hear him or not.


go fey pren zi gabukaw zi tal.

I can understand you only if you speak.


go fu kom ba gakawbu zi ten komxo.

I will eat (something) if you have food.


Finally, in a set of modifiers, the "pi" forms are used.


to gran pikay hoqsa hyun.

The big and red dog.


to gran pikaw hoq sa hyun.

The either big or red or both dog.


to gran pifio hoq sa hyun.

The big, if and only if red, dog.


to gran pidali hoq sa hyun.

The big, whether red or not, dog.


to gran pibukaw hoq sa hyun.

The big, only if red, dog.


to gran pikawbu hoq sa hyun.

The big, if red, dog.


Those are the hard-core logical connectives.

Now, for normal colloquial speech, we have two other “ifs”:


ha – this is from Hungarian, and it means what we usually mean by “if," that is, "contingent on":


ha zi komfel, go don komxo ko zi. – If you are hungry, I will give food to you.

ha to hyun sta cu, to felin bu danja. – If the dog is there, the cat will not enter.


bwi – from Russian, this is the counterfactual “if,” and is used in cases where many languages use the subjunctive:


bwi zi komfo, go don komxo ko zi. – If you were hungry (and you’re not), I’d give food to you.

bwi to hyun sta cu, to felin bu danja. – If the dog were there, the cat would not enter.


You can think of ha as meaning “In the possible word that…” and regard it as a modifier of the other clause. Similarly, you can think of fi as meaning “In the alternate world (not this one) that…”, and regard that, too, as a modifier of the other clause.



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