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Lesson 10

Page history last edited by Rex May 10 years, 2 months ago

Lesson 10 - Jin, Jini, jino, pe, ba, xi, jo


One of the differences between Loglan and Ceqli is that Loglan insists on everything being a verb, unless marked otherwise with an article, while Ceqli is looser.


da farfu. He is-a-father.

le farfu ga gotso. The father goes ('ga' is a separator particle)

da ditca. He teaches, or he is a teacher.

le farfu ga ditca.  The father teaches.


Well, this is sort of true in Ceqli as well.


da pamo. He is-a-father.

to pamo da ja. The father he goes. 

da skul.  He teaches, or he is a teacher.

to pamo da skul. The father he teaches.


That's precise Ceqli (gnawceqlit), very much like Loglan.


But in terse Ceqli (kanmeyceqlit), you can make it shorter, if the context and the listener make things clear:


to pamo da ja. > pamo ja.

to pamo da skul. > pamo skul.


But by doing that we lose clarity, at least for a native English speaker.


skul ja.- the teacher goes.


Just doesn't feel right, as "teach" feels so much like a verb.


To avoid that, we have a series of particles that have an "-er" meaning, and also helps distinguish between a single act, as in an

ad hoc act of teaching and a habitual thing.  The difference between "I teach my son to ride a bicycle." and "I'm a bicycling teacher."


Go skul gosa filo tem zu velo. I teach my son to ride a bicycle. (I teach my son about using a bicycle.)

Go skulpe hu tem zu velo. I'm a bicycling-teacher. (I am-a-teacher of the kind about using a bicycle.)


Skulpe means a person who teaches. You can also use skuljin, an adult human being who teaches, or skuljino,

man who teaches, or, obviously skuljini, woman who teaches.


In the glossaries, I've haphazardly used pe and jin, because they usually come to the same thing, but that's the distinction. Pe is the most 

general, and should be the default use.


We also have ba, "thing," and though it sounds odd, you could say skulba for teaching machine, though you'd probably use

skulgin "teaching computer" or skulxin "teaching machine" instead.


Finally, we have xi and jo, which mean "female" (from English "She") and jo "male" (from English name "Joe). They are used as

prefixes, as in xibalu "she-bear" and jobalu "he-bear".  In fact, the -i and -o endings as in pamo, jini, etc. are derived from these



They can also all be used as pronouns, when handy:


Go xaw xi. I see her. Jo dwel ci. He lives here.


Pe and ba often have the sense of "somebody, a person" and "something, a thing."


Pe sta dor. Somebody is at the door. Ba sta kara fe zi. Something's on your face.


If you say Jin sta dor, you're implying that it's an adult, while Jini sta dor means "There's a woman at the door." 


They also can combine with ci ca cu thus:


Ciba bi kwa? What is this (thing)?


Cupe bi kwi? Who is that person over there?


(in both cases you can drop the bi)


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